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افتراضي by Charles Dickens "Great Excpectations

<*iv align="center"><*iv align="center">"Great Expectations"
Charles Dickens


Plot Overview


Pip, a young orphan living with his sister an* her husban* in the marshes of Kent, sits in a cemetery one evening looking at his parents' tombstones. Su**enly, an escape* convict springs up from behin* a tombstone, grabs Pip, an* or*ers him to bring him foo* an* a file for his leg irons. Pip obeys, but the fearsome convict is soon capture* anyway. The convict protects Pip by claiming to have stolen the items himself.

One *ay Pip is taken by his Uncle Pumblechook to play at Satis House, the home of the wealthy *owager Miss Havisham, who is extremely eccentric: she wears an ol* we**ing *ress everywhere she goes an* keeps all the clocks in her house stoppe* at the same time. During his visit, he meets a beautiful young girl name* Estella, who treats him col*ly an* contemptuously. Nevertheless, he falls in love with her an* *reams of becoming a wealthy gentleman so that he might be worthy of her. He even hopes that Miss Havisham inten*s to make him a gentleman an* marry him to Estella, but his hopes are *ashe* when, after months of regular visits to Satis House, Miss Havisham tells him that she will help him fill out the papers necessary for him to become a common laborer in his family's business.

With Miss Havisham's gui*ance, Pip is apprentice* to his brother-in-law, Joe, who is the village blacksmith. Pip works in the forge unhappily, struggling to better his e*ucation with the help of the plain, kin* Bi**y an* encountering Joe's malicious *ay laborer, Orlick. One night, after an altercation with Orlick, Pip's sister, known as Mrs. Joe, is viciously attacke* an* becomes a mute invali*. From her signals, Pip suspects that Orlick was responsible for the attack.

One *ay a lawyer name* Jaggers appears with strange news: a secret benefactor has given Pip a large fortune, an* Pip must come to Lon*on imme*iately to begin his e*ucation as a gentleman. Pip happily assumes that his previous hopes have come true—that Miss Havisham is his secret benefactor an* that the ol* woman inten*s for him to marry Estella.

In Lon*on, Pip befrien*s a young gentleman name* Herbert Pocket an* Jaggers's law clerk, Wemmick. He expresses *is*ain for his former frien*s an* love* ones, especially Joe, but he continues to pine after Estella. He furthers his e*ucation by stu*ying with the tutor Matthew Pocket, Herbert's father. Herbert himself helps Pip learn how to act like a gentleman. When Pip turns twenty-one an* begins to receive an income from his fortune, he will secretly help Herbert buy his way into the business he has chosen for himself. But for now, Herbert an* Pip lea* a fairly un*iscipline* life in Lon*on, enjoying themselves an* running up *ebts. Orlick reappears in Pip's life, employe* as Miss Havisham's porter, but is promptly fire* by Jaggers after Pip reveals Orlick's unsavory past. Mrs. Joe *ies, an* Pip goes home for the funeral, feeling tremen*ous grief an* remorse. Several years go by, until one night a familiar figure barges into Pip's room—the convict, Magwitch, who stuns Pip by announcing that he, not Miss Havisham, is the source of Pip's fortune. He tells Pip that he was so move* by Pip's boyhoo* kin*ness that he *e*icate* his life to making Pip a gentleman, an* he ma*e a fortune in Australia for that very purpose.

Pip is appalle*, but he feels morally boun* to help Magwitch escape Lon*on, as the convict is pursue* both by the police an* by Compeyson, his former partner in crime. A complicate* mystery begins to fall into place when Pip *iscovers that Compeyson was the man who aban*one* Miss Havisham at the altar an* that Estella is Magwitch's *aughter. Miss Havisham has raise* her to break men's hearts, as revenge for the pain her own broken heart cause* her. Pip was merely a boy for the young Estella to practice on; Miss Havisham *elighte* in Estella's ability to toy with his affections.

As the weeks pass, Pip sees the goo* in Magwitch an* begins to care for him *eeply. Before Magwitch's escape attempt, Estella marries an upper-class lout name* Bentley Drummle. Pip makes a visit to Satis House, where Miss Havisham begs his forgiveness for the way she has treate* him in the past, an* he forgives her. Later that *ay, when she ben*s over the fireplace, her clothing catches fire an* she goes up in flames. She survives but becomes an invali*. In her final *ays, she will continue to repent for her mis*ee*s an* to plea* for Pip's forgiveness.

The time comes for Pip an* his frien*s to spirit Magwitch away from Lon*on. Just before the escape attempt, Pip is calle* to a sha*owy meeting in the marshes, where he encounters the vengeful, evil Orlick. Orlick is on the verge of killing Pip when Herbert arrives with a group of frien*s an* saves Pip's life. Pip an* Herbert hurry back to effect Magwitch's escape. They try to sneak Magwitch *own the river on a rowboat, but they are *iscovere* by the police, who Compeyson tippe* off. Magwitch an* Compeyson fight in the river, an* Compeyson is *rowne*. Magwitch is sentence* to *eath, an* Pip loses his fortune. Magwitch feels that his sentence is Go*'s forgiveness an* *ies at peace. Pip falls ill; Joe comes to Lon*on to care for him, an* they are reconcile*. Joe gives him the news from home: Orlick, after robbing Pumblechook, is now in jail; Miss Havisham has *ie* an* left most of her fortune to the Pockets; Bi**y has taught Joe how to rea* an* write. After Joe leaves, Pip *eci*es to rush home after him an* marry Bi**y, but when he arrives there he *iscovers that she an* Joe have alrea*y marrie*.

Pip *eci*es to go abroa* with Herbert to work in the mercantile tra*e. Returning many years later, he encounters Estella in the ruine* gar*en at Satis House. Drummle, her husban*, treate* her ba*ly, but he is now *ea*. Pip fin*s that Estella's col*ness an* cruelty have been replace* by a sa* kin*ness, an* the two leave the gar*en han* in han*, Pip believing that they will never part again. (Note: Dickens's original en*ing to Great Expectations *iffere* from the one *escribe* in this summary. The final Summary an* Analysis section of this SparkNote provi*es a *escription of the first en*ing an* explains why Dickens rewrote it.)

<*iv align="center">Key Facts

Full title · Great Expectations

author · Charles Dickens

type of work · Novel

genres · Bil*ungsroman, social criticism, autobiographical fiction

language · English

time an* place written · Lon*on, 1860-1861

*ate of first publication · Publishe* serially in Englan* from December 1860 to August 1861; publishe* in book form in Englan* an* America in 1861

publisher · Serialize* in All the Year Roun*; publishe* in Englan* by Chapman & Hall; publishe* in America by Harper & Brothers

narrator · Pip

climax · A sequence of climactic events occurs from about Chapter 51 to Chapter 56: Miss Havisham's burning in the fire, Orlick's attempt to mur*er Pip, an* Pip's attempt to help Magwitch escape Lon*on.

protagonist · Pip

antagonist · Great Expectations *oes not contain a tra*itional single antagonist. Various characters serve as figures against whom Pip must struggle at various times: Magwitch, Mrs. Joe, Miss Havisham, Estella, Orlick, Bentley Drummle, an* Compeyson. With the exception of the last three, each of the novel's antagonists is re*eeme* before the en* of the book.

setting (time) · Mi*-nineteenth century

settings (place) · Kent an* Lon*on, Englan*

point of view · First person

falling action · The perio* following Magwitch's capture in Chapter 54, inclu*ing Magwitch's *eath, Pip's reconciliation with Joe, an* Pip's reunion with Estella eleven years later

tense · Past

foresha*owing · Great Expectations contains a great *eal of foresha*owing. The repeate* references to the convict (the man with the file in the pub, the attack on Mrs. Joe) foresha*ow his return; the secon* convict on the marsh foresha*ows the revelation of Magwitch's conflict with Compeyson; the man in the pub who gives Pip money foresha*ows the revelation that Pip's fortune comes from Magwitch; Miss Havisham's we**ing *ress an* her bizarre surroun*ings foresha*ow the revelation of her past an* her relationship with Estella; Pip's feeling that Estella remin*s him of someone he knows foresha*ows his *iscovery of the truth of her parentage; the fact that Jaggers is a criminal lawyer foresha*ows his involvement in Magwitch's life; an* so on. Moreover, the weather often foresha*ows *ramatic events: a storm brewing generally means there will be trouble ahea*, as on the night of Magwitch's return.

tone · Comic, cheerful, satirical, wry, critical, sentimental, *ark, *ramatic, forebo*ing, Gothic, sympathetic

themes · Ambition an* the *esire for self-improvement (social, economic, e*ucational, an* moral); guilt, criminality, an* innocence; maturation an* the growth from chil*hoo* to a*ulthoo*; the importance of affection, loyalty, an* sympathy over social a*vancement an* class superiority; social class; the *ifficulty of maintaining superficial moral an* social categories in a constantly changing worl*

motifs · Crime an* criminality; *isappointe* expectations; the connection between weather or atmosphere an* *ramatic events; *oubles (two convicts, two secret benefactors, two invali*s, etc.)

symbols · The stoppe* clocks at Satis House symbolize Miss Havisham's attempt to stop time; the many objects relating to crime an* guilt (gallows, prisons, han*cuffs, policemen, lawyers, courts, convicts, chains, files) symbolize the theme of guilt an* innocence; Satis House represents the upper-class worl* to which Pip longs to belong; Bentley Drummle represents the grotesque caprice of the upper class; Joe represents conscience, affection, loyalty, an* simple goo* nature; the marsh mists represent *anger an* ambiguity.



Stu*y Questions & Essay Topics

Stu*y Questions

1. Discuss Pip as both a narrator an* a character. How are *ifferent aspects of his personality reveale* by his telling of his story an* by his participation in the story itself?



Pip's story—the story of the novel—traces his *evelopment through the events of his early life; his narration, however, written years after the en* of the story, is a pro*uct of his character as it exists after the events of the story. Pip's narration thus reveals the psychological en*point of his *evelopment in the novel. Pip's behavior as a character often reveals only part of the story—he treats Joe col*ly, for instance—while his manner as a narrator completes that story: his guilt for his poor behavior towar* his love* ones en*ures, even as he writes about his early life years later. Of course, Dickens manipulates Pip's narration in or*er to evoke its subjects effectively: Pip's chil*hoo* is narrate* in a much more chil*like voice than his a*ult years, even though the narrator Pip presumably writes both parts of the story at a single later *ate. Dickens also uses Pip's narration to reinforce particular aspects of his character that emerge in the course of the novel: we know from his actions that Pip is somewhat self-centere* but sympathetic at heart to others; Pip's later narration of his relationships with others ten*s to reflect those qualities. When Magwitch reveals that he is Pip's benefactor, for instance, Pip is *isguste* by the convict an* *escribes him solely in negative terms; as his affection for Magwitch grows, the *escriptive terms he chooses to apply to the convict become much more positive.



2. What role *oes social class play in Great Expectations? What lessons *oes Pip learn from his experience as a wealthy gentleman? How is the theme of social class central to the novel?

[فقط الأعضاء المسجلين والمفعلين يمكنهم رؤية الوصلات . إضغط هنا للتسجيل]

One way to see Pip's *evelopment, an* the *evelopment of many of the other characters in Great Expectations, is as an attempt to learn to value other human beings: Pip must learn how to value Joe an* Magwitch, Estella must learn how to value Pip, an* so on. Throughout the novel, social class provi*es an arbitrary, external stan*ar* of value by which the characters (particularly Pip) ju*ge one another. Because social class is rigi* an* preexisting, it is an attractive stan*ar* for every character who lacks a clear conscience with which to make ju*gments—Mrs. Joe an* Pumblechook, for instance. An* because high social class is associate* with romantic qualities such as luxury an* e*ucation, it is an imme*iately attractive stan*ar* of value for Pip. After he is elevate* to the status of gentleman, though, Pip begins to see social class for what it is: an unjust, capricious stan*ar* that is largely incompatible with his own morals. There is simply no reason why Bentley Drummle shoul* be value* above Joe, an* Pip senses that fact. The most important lesson Pip learns in the novel—an* perhaps the most important theme in Great Expectations—is that no external stan*ar* of value can replace the ju*gments of one's own conscience. Characters such as Joe an* Bi**y know this instinctively; for Pip, it is a long, har* lesson, the learning of which makes up much of the book.



3. Throughout the novel, Pip is plague* by powerful feelings of guilt an* shame, an* everywhere he goes he ten*s to encounter symbols of justice—han*cuffs, gallows, prisons, an* courtrooms. What is the role of guilt in the novel? What *oes it mean to be “innocent”?



At the beginning of the novel, Pip's feelings of conscience are *etermine* largely by his fear of what others might think, a state of min* no *oubt reinforce* by Mrs. Joe's “Tickler.” He has strong feelings of guilt but an ina*equate system by which to ju*ge right an* wrong; unable to *etermine the value of his own actions, he feels guilty even when he *oes the right thing. He acts with compassion an* sympathy when he helps the convict, but he nevertheless feels *eeply guilty an* imagines that the police are waiting to take him away. As the novel progresses, Pip comes closer to trusting his own feelings; when he helps Magwitch at the en* of the novel, he feels no guilt, only love, an* he remains with the convict even after the police arrive to take him away. Throughout the novel, symbols of justice, such as prisons an* police, serve as remin*ers of the questions of conscience that plague Pip: just as social class provi*es an external stan*ar* of value irrespective of a person's inner worth, the law provi*es an external stan*ar* of moral behavior irrespective of a person's inner feelings. Pip's wholehearte* commitment to helping Magwitch escape the law in the last section of the novel contrasts powerfully with his chil*hoo* fear of police an* shows that, though he continues to be very har* on his own shortcomings, Pip has move* closer to a reliance on his own inner conscience—which is the only way, as Joe an* Bi**y show, that a character can truly be “innocent.”




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